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May 27, 2014

Understanding Open/Closed Principle (OCP) from the SOLID OO principles with a simple Java example

Spring Interview Questions and Answers Q1 - Q14 are FAQs

Q1 - Q4 Overview & DIP Q5 - Q8 DI & IoC Q9 - Q10 Bean Scopes Q11 Packages Q12 Principle OCP Q14 AOP and interceptors
Q15 - Q16 Hibernate & Transaction Manager Q17 - Q20 Hibernate & JNDI Q21 - Q22 read properties Q23 - Q24 JMS & JNDI Q25 JDBC Q26 Spring MVC Q27 - Spring MVC Resolvers

Q. Is there anything wrong with the following class design? If yes, can the design be improved?

package com.ocp;

import javax.management.RuntimeErrorException;

import org.apache.commons.lang.StringUtils;

public class MathOperation {
 
 public int operate(int input1, int input2, String operator){
  
  if(StringUtils.isEmpty(operator)){
   throw new IllegalArgumentException("Invalid operator: " + operator);
  }
  
  if(operator.equalsIgnoreCase("+")){
   return input1 + input2;
  }
  else if(operator.equalsIgnoreCase("*")){
   return input1 * input2; 
  } else {
   throw new RuntimeException("unsupported operator: " + operator);
  }
 }

}

JUnit test class.

package com.ocp;

import junit.framework.Assert;

import org.junit.Before;
import org.junit.Test;

public class MathOperationTest {
 
 MathOperation operation;
 
 @Before
 public void init(){
  operation = new MathOperation();
 }
 
 @Test
 public void testAddition() {
  Assert.assertEquals(8, operation.operate(5, 3, "+"));
 }
 
 @Test
 public void testMultiplication() {
  Assert.assertEquals(15, operation.operate(5, 3, "*"));
 }

}

A. It’s not a good idea to try to anticipate changes in requirements ahead of time, but you should focus on writing code that is well written enough so that it’s easy to change. This means, you should strive to write code that doesn't have to be changed every time the requirements change. This is what the Open/Closed principle is. According to GoF design pattern authors "software entities (classes, modules, functions, etc.) should be open for extension, but closed for modification". Spring framework promotes this principle.

In the above example, you can anticipate more operators like "-" (subtraction) and division (/) to be supported in the future and the class "MathOperation" is not closed for modification. When you need to support operators "-" and "%" you need to add 2 more "else if" statements. Whenever you see large if/else or switch statements, you need to think if "Open/Closed" design principle is more suited.


Let's open for extension and close for modifications

In the rewritten example below, the classes AddOperation and MultiplyOperation are closed for modificationbut open for extension by allowing you to add new classes like SubtractOperation and DivisionOperation by implementing the Operation interface.


Define the interface Operation.

package com.ocp;

public interface Operation {
       abstract int operate(int input1, int input2);
}


Define the implementations

package com.ocp;


public class AddOperation implements Operation {

 @Override
 public int operate(int input1, int input2) {
  return input1 + input2;
 }
 
}

package com.ocp;

public class MultiplyOperation implements Operation {

 @Override
 public int operate(int input1, int input2) {
  return input1 * input2;
 }
 
}


Finally, the JUnit test class

package com.ocp;

import junit.framework.Assert;

import org.junit.Before;
import org.junit.Test;

public class MathOperation2Test {
 
 Operation operation;
  
 @Test
 public void testAddition() {
  operation = new AddOperation();
  Assert.assertEquals(8, operation.operate(5, 3));
 }
 
 @Test
 public void testMultiplication() {
  operation = new MultiplyOperation();
  Assert.assertEquals(15, operation.operate(5, 3));
 }

}


This is only a trivial example, but in real life applications, wherever you have large if/else statements, you need to think if OCP can be applied. Spring framework promotes this principle.


Q. Can you explain if the following classes are badly designed? 

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1 Comments:

Blogger christina jeni said...

Your blog is really very informative and useful for me..Thanks for sharing such a nice blog..

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3:22 PM, May 27, 2014  

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